DAOrayaki |BrightID:数据唯一性证明

DAOrayaki |BrightID:数据唯一性证明

DAOrayaki DAO研究奖金池:

DAOrayaki DAO Research Grant Fund Address: DAOrayaki.eth

Voting Result:DAO Committee Yes

Grant Amount:260USDC

Category: BrightID, BrightDAO, Social Security Number, Government Identifiers, Security, Privacy, Protection, Social Graph, public goods, SybilRank, Uniqueness Scores, Unique Accounts, Self-sovereign Identity,  IDChain, seeds and groups, SeedDAO.

Contributor:Jones,Julie@Daorayaki

DAOrayaki 是一个去中心化的研究者组织和去中心化媒体,通过 DAO的形式去中心化地资助世界各地的研究者进行研究、翻译、分析等工作。DAOrayaki 由早期的 DAO 组织 DAOONE 核心成员发起,得到了Dora Factory基础设施的支持。欢迎通过文末方式提交DAO的研究,瓜分10000USDC赏金池!了解去中心化自治组织(DAO),探讨最新治理话题,关注DAO的发展趋势,欢迎加入DAOrayaki社区!

成立年份

2019

发布时间

Beta version 2019

所属

SOCIAL NETWORK, PRIVACY, GOVERNANCE, DAO

代币

BRIGHT

代币协议

ERC-20

合约地址

0x5dd57da40e6866c9fcc34f4b6ddc89f1ba740dfe

持有人数

2,409 (Cryptorank.io)

市值排名

#3469 (Coinmarketcap)

当前代币价格

$0.5 (Consulted Nov 15th, 2021)

市值

No Data

循环

No Data

总供应量

25M pieces (coindataflow.com

在线交易对

BRIGHT/USDT, HNY/BRIGHT, BRIGHT/ETH

前10名交易所

Lbank, MXC, Honeyswap, Hoo.com, Uniswap

BrightID简介

BrightID 是一个社交身份网络,允许应用验证用户并未使用多个账户, 它通过创建和分析社交图谱来解决唯一身份问题。 BrightID 是一种为人类造福而存在的公共产品。 它是一种非侵入性、去中心化、开源技术,旨在改革身份验证,从而为自由民主社会奠定基础。

另一方面,BrighID 主要的 DAO 将促进不同seed选择方法的研究,以及使seed选择具有可扩展性的工具的创建。下面概述了在创建seed选择过程时要考虑的一些原则。

背景

这是一个简单而强大的想法:让我们构建一个开源身份网络,一个除了您与其他真实人物的联系之外,不需要任何个人信息的社交图谱。该网络可以成为去中心化系统的基础,用概率证明网络的每个成员是否为真人。如果我们对社会关系进行图形分析,并额外输入一定数量的的可信seed身份,那么成为去中心化系统的基础是可能存在的。图表的互连性应根据相对于受信任seed的位置来揭示哪些成员是真实的,哪些是假的(又名“女巫”)。这正是 BrightID 项目存在的目标。

BrightID 的创建者还提出了著名的“SybilRank”算法的修改版本,他们将其称为“SybilGroupRank”(M. Heydari、M. Khanmohammadzade、R. Bakhshandeh 和 C.A. Stallard;publication forthcoming)。这种修改考虑到社会群体的互联性,而不仅仅是个人社交联络。在目前的方案中,只有当您个人与该组的一半以上成员有联系时,您才能加入“组”。加入组类似于“我个人可能并不认识这个小组中的每个人,但我基于这个小组中我认识的人的判断,相信这个小组中的每个人都是真实的人。” SybilGroupRank 算法在检测各种随机社交图谱中的女巫方面表现良好。

值得注意的是,BrightID身份网络是一种公共开源产品,不同于SybilGroupRank (也是开源的)算法。这使得身份系统对创新持开放态度:任何人都可以访问数据并使用自己精心挑选的可信seed在社交图谱上运行自己的女巫检测算法。

BrightID的诞生

Adam 正在研究需要 KYC 或 AML 的基本收入项目。 都要求提供用户文档的扫描副本。 即使没有这样做,不久之后它们也会被垃圾邮件和拥有重复帐户的用户利用。Adam 想创造一些更适合数字世界的新事物。 他想防止用户创建重复多个帐户并破坏每个人的系统。

一开始,只有他一个人。 但是,当他在由 Daniel Jeffries 主持的社区向Decstack 提出他的想法时,他收到了来自 Giveth、Aragon 和其他社区的很多人的鼓励、反馈和支持。

BrightID 适合所有人

BrightID 是一个类似于社会安全号码 (SSN) 的全球识别系统。 SSN 最初于 40年代成立,旨在证明人们有资格从美国政府获得福利。然而,如今它也被用在与社会保障无关的事情上,因为它已成为唯一人的标识符。

BrightID与人们所熟知的政府颁发的 ID 在传统上有很大不同。人们不知道他们现实中的身份证件在幕后是什么以及它们是如何发行的。他们不知道这些信息是如何被获取的。不知道他们 ID 的所有使用方式。老实说,什么都不知道。出于这些原因,BrightID带来了一个边界更少、透明度更高的新世界。它使用户对自己身份拥有更多自由和更多控制权,它不由政府发行,不受任何人控制,不显示任何信息,除了用户自己想要透露的信息外,允许人们使用新的实验代币,投票系统、福利计划以及各种甚至不存在的项目,但只有一个条件:

- 没有人可以创建多个帐户。 所有用户都有自己唯一的 BrightID。

想象一下世界遗产或自然资源,无论其国籍、性别、财富等,世界上的所有公民都可以公平和平等地管理它。

Basics 的基础

BrightID 机制

BrightID鼓励用户与他们熟悉的人建立联系。图谱是由相互联系的人构成的。然后通过一系列算法进行分析,该算法可查看用户和用户组如何相互关联并分配成绩以证明每个用户的唯一性概率。简而言之,BrightID 通过检查社交图谱为用户组分配唯一性成绩。

在小范围内,人们通过建立联系来相互担保。在很大程度上,成绩取决于人们与已知良好图谱的其余成员的联系程度。直接链接到 BrightID 中得分高的真实用户并不重要。重要的是与高分用户在图谱的同一部分,与拥有其他真实的人的联系方式相比,与他人联系这种更有意义。

问题是,如果你一个人在一个岛上并且根本没有与任何人联系,那么你很难被识别,因为系统无法判断你缺乏联系是由于你独自在一个岛上还是你使用重复的女巫或是垃圾邮件。

网络越拥挤,BrightID 就越健全

BrightID 的美好未来

有了 BrightID,世界公民将享受到各种可能性。首先会注意到的是,以公平的分配方法从许多慈善组织中获利。参考比特币被公平地分配给任何能够证明自己是真人的用户。在此过程中,您会看到一些与国家和国际组织的民主决策有关的有趣项目。

社交媒体应用程序将会出现,其中每个人都被证明是真实的,并且系统会更加尊重用户的隐私。上述所有系统只需要您的BrightID成绩。他们不需要您的姓名、国籍或其他信息。你的分数将表明你是一个真人,在网络中只存在一个账户。 BrightID 使用户免于垃圾邮件的困扰。不再有来自拥有上千个 Facebook 帐户的人的扭曲信息。它支持由真人组成的社交网络。

使用BrightID,没有像Facebook这样的中央集权系统掌握您的数据。 BrightID将会有更自由的系统,每个人都可以掌控自己的数据。不再需要将数据保存在大型服务器上来证明我们是真实的。 BrightID 使您能够简单地证明您是真人,并且系统中没有多个帐户。

BrightID使您可以说出“这是我的帐户。我唯一的帐户。我是一个真实的人。一个真正的世界公民。认出我!”

可更换的BrightID

如果有人偶然或有意窃取了您的 BrightID,需要更换 BrightID也非常简单。您所要做的就是与您最初联系的几个人重新建立联系,并让他们证明您与该 BrightID 是同一个人,您就可以将其取回。 因此,万一您丢失了 BrightID,您可以快速取回它并使丢失账号无效。

如果您是身份盗窃的受害者,您知道更换社会安全号码有多困难吗? 你有没有试过把骆驼推过针孔么?像这样一样难。

BrightID 机制

创建和存储社交图谱

社交图谱包含人与人之间经过加密签名的联系记录。 每个用户管理自己的签名密钥,因此创建连接独立于任何特定服务或应用程序。 这产生了一种自我主权身份的形式,因为每个用户都拥有自己的数字标识符。 社交图谱本身可以为许多功能提供参考,但这些功能均不产生图谱,也无法控制个人用户的行为。 这种架构允许图中的连接数据可移植并存在于分布式网络中。

去中心化网络

连接数据的概率对于创建分散计算机节点网络至关重要,其中每个节点都有一个完整的图形副本。 权力下放允许多种分析方法共存。 多个独立方能够对相同的连接数据使用自己的分析方法这点至关重要,既可以确保权威验证过的身份不受任何单个实体的控制,也可以允许对独立方的方法进行分析和定期审计。 这也促进了对现有分析方法的开放式创新和改进,通过基于以太坊的名为 ID链的权威来证明区块链的更改操作,图谱的每个副本都将保持同步。

分析

为了确定用户的独特性,对图谱进行分析。 有很多可能的方法; 可以比较或汇总不同的方法。 网络中的节点可以自由采用他们希望的任何分析方法。

元数据

在 BrightID 团队尝试的方法中,发现以seed和组的形式考虑额外数据是有效。 seed是图谱中预选的信任点。群组——就我们使用它们的意义而言——是由互联用户共同努力帮助某人在小规模中获得验证。 组为用户互连提供了比单一连接更多的可能性,因此我们分析了互连组的图谱。

阈值

SybilRank 是 BrightID 试用软件的一部分算法,已在西班牙社交网络 Tuenti 上进行了测试。 该算法用于排列顶点(用户)代表重复用户(sybils)的可能性对图中的顶点(用户)进行排名。 有序列表提供给手动检查和删除可疑帐户的工作人员。 与通过用户报告相比,拥有这样一个有序列表会导致工作人员发现更多重复项。

像 Tuenti 示例中使用手动检查可能不切实际,因此验证方法需要找到一个阈值,高于该阈值的用户被认为是唯一的,并自动将其标记为已验证。 较高的阈值可能会导致更多的假阴性(真实人被错误标记),而较低的阈值可能会导致更多的假阳性(女巫被错误标记)。 不同的应用程序可以决定他们想要在这个频谱上的哪个位置运行。

注入模拟攻击

自动找到阈值的一种方法是模拟不同类型的女巫攻击,并在运行排名分析之前将它们注入图谱中的不同位置。 经过分析,模拟女巫的排名可以与之前验证用户的新排名进行比较。 阈值设置为可接受的误报和漏报水平。

结果梳理

应用程序可以自由选择最合适的算法、参数和阈值。 验证方法可能会从其他几种验证方法(可能在多个节点上运行)中采样结果,然后根据自己的喜好组合它们。

验证持久性

用户通常不会因为低于阈值而失去验证,除非也发生了重要的本地更改——例如,从主要组中删除或附近的seed组丢失。

连接级别

人们有机会评估他们对所连接的用户的了解程度。 这使得攻击者更难将他们的女巫区域延伸到图谱的真实部分。 检测与图谱的真实部分只有稀疏连接的区域这是许多反女巫分析方法的一个特征。

恢复

每个 BrightID 都有一个与之关联的签名密钥对。如果用户无法访问签名私钥,或者密钥被泄露,则可以通过重新联系一组受信任联系人中得两位成员来轻松替换它。一种简单的恢复方法可以降低贿赂的效率:用户可以简单地接受贿赂,然后更换他们的签名密钥,使之前的密钥变得毫无用处。

主要群体

主要群体是被验证的重要组成部分。如果一个用户的主要群体通过反女巫算法并且排名足够高,则只能将其验证为唯一的人。 每个人都要选择一个主要组,发生这种情况时会通知其他成员。 必须由超过 50% 的组成员授权个人选择主要组。 此外,任何成员都可以将某个组标记为非主要组,并且任何成员都可以否决其他成员将某个组用作主要群组。

主要组代表特定人的最亲密的联系人。BrightID 用户应标记该组并相应地否决其他用户。

Seeds

一些社交图谱分析系统有seeds的概念,即充当信任中心的人。 系统使用Seed来区分图谱的真实区域和攻击者创建的类似于真实区域的女巫区域。 在网络的快速增长阶段,当可能出现与主图谱没有良好连接的用户图谱时,seed的选择尤其重要。

BrightID主要DAO促进了不同seed选择方法的研究,以及使seed选择具有可扩展性的工具的创建。下面概述了在创建seed选择过程时要考虑的一些原则。

Seed 组

当对组图谱进行分析时(如在几个初始系统中的情况),将seed作为组中的人。 这允许seed具有连续的生命周期。

可发现性

出于两个重要原因,seed组必须是可发现的:

- 首先,BrightID 用户必须有可靠的步骤才能成为唯一的用户。 在网络快速增长的阶段,这通常包括寻找并与seed组成员建立联系。

- 被赋予任务向组分配和撤销seed状态的DAO 需要方法来找到组并确保其运行良好。

Seed DAOs

Seed DAO 有权指定Seed组并删除该名称。使用可信Seed的算法可以使用 DAO 发布的Seed用户列表。 可以组合多个Seed列表,由Seed DAO 来证明其选择过程的可信度。 Seed DAO 可能有资格从 BrightID 主 DAO 中获得赠款。

治理

Seed DAO 可以选择其成员资格并按照自己的意愿运作。seed DAO 的成员可能包括它选择的seed组的成员。 BrightID 核心团队的一些成员在 ID链 上创建了一个 Aragon 的seedDAO(称为 SeedDAO),其中每个成员对添加和删除seed组或 DAO 成员拥有一票权利。

使用图形浏览器

BrightID 发布了一个用于探索 BrightID 图谱的工具。 用户可以在图表中看到自己和组的连接位置。

此工具还可用于标记区域并导出边界以与其他seed Dao成员共享。 这有助于共享seed组的位置及其影响的区域。Seed Dao成员可以通过添加已观察到的人来连接到seed组成员并定义区域。这会在seed组周围创建一个已知人类区域。 这些人的排名可以随着时间的推移进行衡量,以帮助衡量seed组的有效性。

检查seed组

seed Dao应该定期派一名成员访问指定的每个seed组,以确保它仍然可以访问并帮助确定附近区域真实性。

BrightID 主要DAO

一个去中心化的自治组织(BrightID 主要DAO)用于代表人类的利益以及用户在 BrightID 网络上使用的应用程序。 BrightID 主要DAO 支持与 BrightID 相关的开源软件、节点、seed、研究和交流。

BrightID 主要 DAO 预算类别

发展

资助发展:

- 允许用户建立连接、管理加密密钥和授权其他应用程序的应用。

- BrightID 节点使用的点对点协议。

- BrightID 的其他开源通用实用程序。

研究

资助分析合并社交图谱的新技术和希望运行的节点的用户的研究。 奖励各种普通和安全活动。

seed 组发展

将偏远社区纳入 BrightID 网络并资助seed选择过程的研究。

沟通

与企业沟通、提供支持、创建面向公众的文档(包括用户和集成指南)、主持和参加活动、参与社区建设。

Team members 团队成员

BrightID 团队

-Adam Stallard——项目负责人:Adam 从 2010 年开始从事分布式系统工作,从 2002 年开始从事客户端-服务器架构。BrightID 是他的激情所在。

-推特账号:https://twitter.com/cadamstallard

-David Wisner–– 移动主管:David 是一名 Javascript 开发人员,拥有 6 年的 Web 应用程序构建经验。他毕业于华盛顿大学,获得心理学学位。

-推特账号:https://twitter.com/Rnb_Wd

-Alireza Paslar——研究、传播:Paslar 为 BrightID 进行社区管理、研究和内容创建

-推特账号:https://twitter.com/alirezapaslar

-Mahdi Heydari——研究、移动、智能合约、Web 应用程序:Mahdi 拥有超过 10 年的编程经验。他在经济学领域中的银行和货币系统得社会批判方面拥有多年的研究经验。

-推特账户:https://twitter.com/AbramSymons

-Mohsen Khan-mohammad-zadeh——研究、智能合约、Web 应用程序:Mohsen 拥有多年的程序员经验。研究区块链和智能合约已有一段时间,是区块链生态中值得信赖且流利的程序员。

-Michael Bauer– 移动、智能合约、Web 应用程序:Michael 在德国学习计算机科学,拥有超过 20 年的开发和项目经理经验。他对区块链和智能合约技术充满热情。

-推特账号:https://twitter.com/TripleSpeeder

-Dama Vara——UI 设计:Dama 拥有多年的视觉设计师经验,专门从事营销和传播内容。她设计 BrightID 移动应用程序、网站和其他通讯相关内容。

- 领英账号:https://www.linkedin.com/in/damavara

-Carlos Mesa——研究、通讯:Carlos 自 2013 年以来一直致力于采用加密代币。他为 BrightID 进行社区管理、研究和内容创建。

-推特账号:https://twitter.com/MonoMesa

-Mohammad Hossein Ghaznavi——社区管理:Ehsan 为 BrightID 进行社区管理、内容创建和营销。

-推特账号:https://twitter.com/rightehsan

-Bitsikka——集成、移动/网络应用、社区协调员:Bitsikka 从 2016 年开始研究 Web3,拥有 8 年以上的移动/网络前端开发经验,多年来一直积极参与各种 Web3 社区。他在 BrightID 帮助应用程序/社区集成、文档和社区管理。

-推特账号:https://twitter.com/bitsikka

-Mohammad Reza Yazdani——社区成长、内容创建:Yazdani 通过创建内容和制定广告策略帮助社区成长。他在业务发展、经济和金融方面拥有超过四年的经验。

-推特账号:https://twitter.com/yazdaaniam

-Brandon Venetta——网络发展:只是一个努力在这个世界上做好事的普通人,父亲和丈夫。

-推特账号:https://twitter.com/brandonvenetta

Advisory Team顾问团队

-Philip Silva——战略、使命:飞利浦帮助创建了 ZeroPoverty 和非营利组织 HedgeForHumanity,以推进普遍共享、加密 UBI 和为全人类支付社会红利的理念。

-推特账号:https://twitter.com/UBIpromoter

-Griff Green——DAO,Commons:TheDAO 的社区经理,White Hat Group、Giveth 和 Commons Stack 的联合创始人,以及为许多其他核心以太坊社区项目提供建议。

-推特账号:https://twitter.com/thegrifft

-Like Duncan——DAO,Commons:Luke Duncan 是开源技术和去中心化平台的倡导者。他共同创立了 1Hive,并致力于在 Aragon One 团队中提高 DAO 的可用性和采用率。

-推特账号:https://twitter.com/lkngtn

-Auryn Macmillan——DAO,Commons:Auryn 是一名社区建设者和用户研究员,对开放技术充满热情。 DAOhub 创始人,BD; Colony 的 高级经理,前职业篮球运动员,理学硕士和研究方法。

-推特账号:https://twitter.com/auryn_macmillan

-Ross Campbell——法律、DAO、LAO:Ross 是 OpenLaw 的布鲁克林律师和程序员,在以太坊上开发基于代码合约和公司方面拥有丰富的经验。

-推特账号:https://twitter.com/r_ross_campbell

网站

Official Website: https://www.brightid.org/

Discord: https://discord.com/invite/nTtuB2M

Github: https://github.com/BrightID

Twitter: https://twitter.com/BrightIDProject

Telegram: https://t.me/brightidofficial

Keybase: https://keybase.io/team/brightid

Riot: https://riot.im/app/#/room/#brightid:matrix.org


BrightID: Proof of digital uniqueness

DAOrayaki DAO Research Grant Fund Address: DAOrayaki.eth

Voting Result:DAO Committee Yes

Grant Amount:260USDC

Category: BrightID, BrightDAO, Social Security Number, Government Identifiers, Security, Privacy, Protection, Social Graph, public goods, SybilRank, Uniqueness Scores, Unique Accounts, Self-sovereign Identity,  IDChain, seeds and groups, SeedDAO.

Contributor:Jones@Daorayaki

Year of Establishment

2019

Publish Time

Beta version 2019

Sector

SOCIAL NETWORK, PRIVACY, GOVERNANCE, DAO

Token Symbol

BRIGHT

Token Protocol

ERC-20 

Contract address

0x5dd57da40e6866c9fcc34f4b6ddc89f1ba740dfe

Holders Count

2,409 (Cryptorank.io)

Market Value Ranking

#3469 (Coinmarketcap)

Current Currency Price

$0.5 (Consulted Nov 15th, 2021)

Market Capitalization

No Data

Circulation

No Data

Total Supply

25M pieces (coindataflow.com

Online Trading Pairs

BRIGHT/USDT, HNY/BRIGHT, BRIGHT/ETH

Top 10 Exchanges

Lbank, MXC, Honeyswap, Hoo.com, Uniswap

Brief Overview About BrightID

BrightID is a social identity network that allows people to prove to applications that they aren’t using multiple accounts. It solves the unique identity problem through the creation and analysis of a social graph. BrightID is a public good that exists for the benefit of humanity. It is a nonintrusive, decentralized, open-source technology seeking to reform identity verification and thus lay the groundwork for a free and democratic society.

From the other hand, BrighID Main DAO will promote the research of different seed selection methods and also the creation of tools that make seed selection scalable. Some principles to consider when creating a seed selection process are outlined below.

Background

Here is a simple, powerful idea: let’s build an open-source identity network, a social graph that does not require any personal information besides your connections to other real people. This network could be the basis for a decentralized system to probabilistically prove whether each member of the network is a real, unique human. Such a feat is possible if we use a graph analysis of our social connections, with the additional input of a limited number of trusted seed identities. The interconnectivity of the graph should reveal which members are real and which are fake (aka “Sybils”), based on their position in relation to the trusted seeds. This is exactly the goal of the project known as BrightID.

The creators of BrightID additionally came up with a modified version of the well-known “SybilRank” algorithm, which they refer to as “SybilGroupRank” (M. Heydari, M. Khanmohammadzade, R. Bakhshandeh, & C.A. Stallard; publication forthcoming). This modification takes into account the interconnectivity of social groups, rather than just individual social connections. In its current implementation, you may join a “group” only if you are personally connected to over half the group’s members. Joining a group is akin to saying “I may not personally know everyone in this group, but I trust the good judgment of the people that I do personally know in this group, and therefore I believe that everyone in this group is a real, unique human.” The SybilGroupRank algorithm performs well at detecting Sybils in a variety of random social graphs.

Notably, the BrightID identity network is an open source public good, distinct from the (also open source) SybilGroupRank algorithm. That leaves the identity system open for innovation: Anyone can access the data and run their own Sybil-detection algorithm on the social graph, using their own hand-picked trusted seeds.

Birth of BrightID

Adam was doing research on universal basic income projects that required KYC or AML. They all asked for scanned copies of user documents. And even if they didn’t, it wasn’t so long before they were exploited by spammers and users with duplicate accounts. He wanted to create something new and more fit for the digital world. He wanted to prevent users from creating thousands of accounts and ruining the system for everybody.

In the beginning, it was just him. But, when he proposed his ideas to Decstack––a community hosted by Daniel Jeffries––he received tons of encouragement, feedback and support from the folks in Giveth, Aragon, and other communities.

A BrightID for Everybody

BrightID is a global identification system very similar to a social security number(SSN). SSN was first instituted in the forties to certify people’s qualification to receive benefits from the US government. However, it is nowadays used for things that have nothing to do with social security just because it has become a defacto unique personal identifier.

BrightID is much different from what people are used to when they think of an ID that is issued by a government. People don’t know what goes behind that scenes with their government identity and how they are issued. They don’t know how that information is taken from them. They don’t know all the ways their ID is used. They honestly don’t know. For such reasons, BrightID brings a new world with fewer boundaries and more transparency. It enables more freedom and more personal control over one’s own identification, it is issued by no government, is in control by nobody and does not show any bit of information other than what users themselves intend to reveal, allowing people to use new experimental currencies, voting systems, benefit programs, and all sorts of projects that don’t even exist yet with only one condition:

  • No one gets to create multiple accounts. All users have their own unique BrightID.

Imagine a world heritage or a natural resource that all citizens of the world get to govern it fairly and equally, regardless of their nationality, gender, wealth, etc.

Basics

BrightID Machinery

BrightID encourages users to make connections to people they already know well. A graph is constructed of people connecting to each other. It is then analyzed by an algorithm that looks at how users and groups of users are interconnected and assigns scores to demonstrate the probability of uniqueness for each and every user. Simply put, BrightID assigns uniqueness scores to groups of users by checking a social graph.

On a small scale, people are vouching for each other by making connections. And on a large scale, scores depend on how connected people are to the rest of the known good graph. It doesn’t matter to be directly connected to real users with high scores in BrightID. What matters is being in the same part of the graph as high score users and being connected to others in a way that makes sense compared to the way other real people are connected.

The problem is that if you’re on an island by yourself and not connected to anybody at all, then you have a hard time getting identified because the system has no way of figuring out your lack of connections is due to your isolation or being a duplicate sybil or spam.

The more crowded the network, the more robust BrightID gets

Bright Future with BrightID

With BrightID, citizens of the world will enjoy all sorts of possibilities. The first thing they will notice is their ability to receive benefits from a lot of different philanthropic organizations in a fair way and with a fair distribution. Think of Bitcoins being fairly distributed to anyone who can prove they are a real person. Further along the way, you’ll see interesting projects that have to do with democracy and decision-making in national and global organizations.

Social media applications will arise in which everyone is proved to be real and the system is a lot more respectful of users’ privacy. All the systems above will only need your BrightID score. They don’t need your name, nationality, or anything else. Your score will show that you’re a unique, real person that only exists in the network once. BrightID frees users from the plague of spam. No more distorted information coming from someone with a thousand Facebook accounts. It enables social networks that are no doubt comprised of real people.

With BrightID, no central system like Facebook is able to control your data. There will be much freer systems where everyone is in control of their own data. We no longer have to save our data on big servers to prove we are real. BrightID enables you to simply prove you’re real and do not have multiple accounts in the systems.

BrightID enables you to say “This is my account. My only account. I'm a real person. A real citizen of the world. Recognize me!”

Redeemable BrightID

If someone, by chance or intentionally, steals your BrightID, it is very simple to replace. All you have to do is reconnect with a few people that you connected with in the first place and have them attest to the fact that you are the same person with that BrightID and you can have it back. So, in case you lose your BrightID, you can have it back quickly and invalidate the one you have lost.

Do you know how difficult it is to replace a social security number if you’re a victim of identity theft? Have you ever tried to push a camel through a needle hole?

BrightID Mechanics

Creating and storing the social graph

The social graph contains cryptographically signed connections between people. Each user manages their own signing keys, so the ability to create connections is independent from any particular service or application. This results in a form of self-sovereign identity, since each user has ownership of their own digital identifier. The social graph itself can be used as a reference for many different services, but none of these services are in charge of the graph, nor be able to control the behavior of individual users. This architecture allows connection data within the graph to be portable and to exist on a decentralized network.

Decentralized Network

Probability of connection data is essential for creating a decentralized network of computer nodes in which each has a complete copy of the graph. Decentralization allows for a wide variety of coexisting analysis methods. It is crucial for multiple independent parties to be able to use their own analysis methods on the same connection data, both to ensure that authority ever verified identities does not fall under the control of any single entity, but also to allow the regular auditing of analysis methods by independent parties. This also fosters open innovation and improvements to existing analysis methods,

Each copy of the graph is kept in sync by relying change operations through an Ethereum-based proof-of-authority blockchain called IDChain.

Analysis

In order to make a determination about someone’s uniqueness, the graph is analyzed. There are many possible methods; different methods can be compared or aggregated. Nodes in the network are free to employ whatever analysis methods they wish.

Metadata

In the methods BrightID team tried, it was found that it is useful to consider additional data in the form of seeds and groups. Seeds are preselected points in the graph from which trust flows. Groups––in the sense we use them–– are small, combined efforts by connected users to help someone become verified. Groups provide richer possibilities for interconnectivity than single connections and we analyzed the graph of interconnected groups.

Thresholds

SybilRank, an algorithm on which part of BrightID trial software was based, was tested with the Spanish social network Tuenti. The algorithm was used to rank vertices (users) in the graph according to their likelihood of representing duplicate users (sybils). The ordered list was given to workers who manually checked and removed suspicious accounts. Having such an ordered list resulted in workers finding many more duplicates than through user reporting.

A manual check like the one used in the Tuenti example may not be practical, so a verification method needs to find a threshold above which users are considered unique and automatically mark them as verified. A higher threshold may result in more false negatives (unique people being mislabeled), while a lower threshold may result in more false positives (sybils being mislabeled). DIfferent apps can decide where on this spectrum they would like to operate.

Injecting simulated attacks

One way to automatically find a threshold is to simulate different kinds of sybil attacks and inject them into the graph at various locations before running the ranking analysis. After analysis, the rankings of the simulated sybils can be compared to the new rankings of previously verified users. The threshold is set to an acceptable level of false positives and false negatives.

Combing results

Applications are free to choose the most appropriate algorithms, parameters, and threshold. Verification methods may sample results from several other verification methods (potentially running on several nodes) and combine them however they like.

Verification persistence

A user typically doesn’t lose a verification for falling below a threshold unless an important local change has also occurred––for example, being removed from a primary group or the loss of a nearby seed group.

Connection levels

People have the opportunity to assess how well they know the user to whom they are connecting. This makes it harder for an attacker to make connections from their sybil region to the honest part of the graph. Detecting regions where there are only sparse connections to the honest part of the graph is a feature of many anti-sybil analysis methods.

Recovery

Each BrightID has a signing key pair associated with it. If a user loses access to the signing private key, or the key is compromised, it can be easily replaced by reconnecting to two members of a set of trusted contacts. Having an easy recovery method makes bribery less effective: a user could simply accept a bribe and then replace their signing key, rendering the previous one useless.

Primary groups

Primary groups are an important part of being verified. A person can only be verified as a unique human if their primary group has been ranked high enough by anti-sybil algorithms. Each person chooses one primary group. Other members are notified when this happens. Over 50% of the members of the group must authorize a person’s choice of primary group. In addition, any member may mark a group as unusable as a primary group and any member may veto another member’s use of a group as a primary group.

A primary group represents the closest personal contacts for a particular person. BrightID users should mark groups and veto other users accordingly.

Seeds

Some social graph analysis systems have a notion of seeds, which are people who serve as centers of trust. Seeds are used by the system to differentiate between honest regions of the graph and sybil regions created by attackers to resemble honest regions. Selecting seeds is especially important during the rapid growth phase of the network when subgraphs of users may arise that are not well-connected to the main graph.

BrightID Main DAO promotes the research of different seed selection methods and also the creation of tools that make seed selection scalable. Some principles to consider when creating a seed selection process are outlined below.

Seed Groups

When analysis is done on a graph of groups (as is the case in several of the initial systems), it makes sense for a seed to be a group of people. This allows a seed to have a continuous lifespan.

Discoverability

A seed group must be discoverable for two important reasons:

  • First, a BrightID user must have reliable steps they can take to become verified as a unique person. In the stage of rapid network growth, this will often include finding and making connections with members of a seed group.
  • Second, DAOs given the task to assign and revoke seed status to groups need a way to find a group and ensure that it is operating well.

Seed DAOs

Seed DAOs have the authority to designate seed groups and remove that designation. Algorithms that make use of trusted seeds can use lists of seed users published by DAOs. Multiple seed lists may be combined, it’s up to seed DAOs to prove the trustworthiness of their selection process. Seed DAOs may be eligible to receive grants from BrightID Main DAO.

Governance

A seed DAO may choose its membership and operate however it wishes. A seed DAO’s membership may include members of seed groups that it has selected. Some members of the BrightID core team created an Aragon seed DAO (called SeedDAO) on IDChain where each member has one vote on decisions to add and remove seed groups or DAO members.

Use of the graph explorer

BrightID released a tool for exploring the BrightID graph. Users can see the position of their own connections and groups in the graph.

This tool can also be used to mark regions and export the boundaries to share with other seed dao members. This helps with sharing the location of seed groups and the regions they affect. A seed dao member can define a region by adding people who have been observed to connect to seed group members. This creates an area of known humans around a seed group. Those peoples’ ranks can be measured over time to help gauge the effectiveness of the seed group.

Checking seed groups

A seed dao should periodically send a member to visit each seed group it has designated to make sure it’s still accessible and helping the nearby regions.

BrightID Main DAO

A decentralized autonomous organization (BrightID Main DAO) is used to represent the interests of humanity and the applications they use on the BrightID network. BrightID Main DAO supports BrightID-related open-source software, nodes, seeds, research, and communication.

BrightID Main DAO Budget Categories

Development

Fund the development of:

  • Applications that allow users to make connections, manage cryptographic keys and authorize other applications.
  • The peer-to-peer protocol used by BrightID nodes.
  • Other open-source, general purpose utilities for BrightID.

Research

Fund the research of new techniques for analyzing the social graph and users who wish to run nodes to incorporate these techniques. Award bounties for various general and security activities.

Seed Group Development

Bring remote communities into the BrightID network and fund research on seed selection processes.

Communications

Communicate with businesses, offer support, create public-facing documents including user and integration guides, host and attend events, engage in community building.

Team members

BrightID Team

  • Adam stallard–– Project Lead: Adam has worked in distributed systems since 2010 and client-server architecture since 2002. BrightID is his passion.
  • Twitter Account: https://twitter.com/cadamstallard
  • David Wisner–– Mobile Lead: David is a Javascript developer with 6 years of experience building web apps. He graduated from the University of Washington with a degree in psychology.
  • Twitter Account: https://twitter.com/Rnb_Wd
  • Alireza Paslar–– Research, Communications: Paslar does community management, research, and content creation for BrightID
  • Twitter Account: https://twitter.com/alirezapaslar
  • Mahdi Heydari–– Research, Mobile, Smart Contracts, Web Apps: Mahdi has over ten years of experience in programming. He also has years of research experience in economics and social criticism on banking and monetary systems.
  • Twitter Account: https://twitter.com/AbramSymons
  • Mohsen Khan-mohammad-zadeh–– Research, Smart Contracts, Web Apps: Mohsen has years of experience as a programmer. He has been researching blockchain and smart contracts for some time and is a trusted and fluent programmer in the blockchain ecosystem.
  • Twitter Account: https://twitter.com/siftal_
  • Michael Bauer–– Mobile, Smart Contract, Web Apps: Michael studied Computer Science in Germany and has +20 years of experience as a developer and project manager. He is passionate about blockchain and smart contract technology.
  • Twitter Account: https://twitter.com/TripleSpeeder
  • Dama Vara–– UI Design: Dama has years of experience as a visual designer specializing in marketing and communication content. She designs BrightID mobile apps, websites, and other communication content.
  • LinkedIn Account: https://www.linkedin.com/in/damavara
  • Carlos Mesa–– Research, Communications: Carlos has been working towards cryptocurrencies adoption since 2013. He does community management, research, and content creation for BrightID.
  • Twitter Account: https://twitter.com/MonoMesa
  • Mohammad Hossein Ghaznavi–– Community Management: Ehsan does community management, content creation and marketing for BrightID.
  • Twitter Account: https://twitter.com/rightehsan
  • Bitsikka–– Integration, Mobile/Web Apps, Community Facilitator: Bitsikka has been studying Web3 since 2016, has 8+ years of mobile/web frontend development, and has been participating in various Web3 communities actively for years. He helps with App/Community integration, documentation, and community management at BrightID.
  • Twitter Account: https://twitter.com/bitsikka
  • Mohammad Reza Yazdani–– Community Growth, Content Creation: Yazdani helps the community to grow through creating content and making advertising strategies. He has over four years of experience in business development, economics, and finance.
  • Twitter Account: https://twitter.com/yazdaaniam
  • Brandon Venetta–– Network Development: Just an ordinary guy trying his best to do good in this world, Father and Husband.
  • Twitter Account: https://twitter.com/brandonvenetta

Advisory Team

  • Philip Silva–– Strategy, Mission: Philips helped create ZeroPoverty and the non-profit HedgeForHumanity to advance the ideas of universal sharing, crypto-UBI, and paying social dividends for all of humanity.
  • Twitter Account: https://twitter.com/UBIpromoter
  • Griff Green–– DAO, Commons: Community manager for TheDAO, co-founder of the White Hat Group, Giveth, and the Commons Stack, as well as advising many other core Ethereum community projects.
  • Twitter Account: https://twitter.com/thegrifft
  • Like Duncan–– DAO, Commons: Luke Duncan is an advocate for open source technologies and decentralized platforms. He co-founded 1Hive and is working to advance DAO usability and adoption on the Aragon One team.
  • Twitter Account: https://twitter.com/lkngtn
  • Auryn Macmillan–– DAO, Commons: Auryn is a community builder and user researcher with a passion for open technologies. Founder of DAOhub, BD; SM at Colony, former pro basketball player, MSc Psych & Research Methods.
  • Twitter Account: https://twitter.com/auryn_macmillan
  • Ross Campbell–– Legal, DAO, LAO: Ross is a Brooklyn-based attorney and programmer at OpenLaw with substantial experience developing code-based contracts and companies on Ethereum.
  • Twitter Account: https://twitter.com/r_ross_campbell

Resources

Official Website: https://www.brightid.org/

Discord: https://discord.com/invite/nTtuB2M

Github: https://github.com/BrightID

Twitter: https://twitter.com/BrightIDProject

Telegram: https://t.me/brightidofficial

Keybase: https://keybase.io/team/brightid

Riot: https://riot.im/app/#/room/#brightid:matrix.org


通过 DAO,研究组织和媒体可以打破地域的限制,以社区的方式资助和生产内容。DAOrayaki将会通过DAO的形式,构建一个满足人们需求,一个民主治理和所有人都可以利用的公共媒体系统,从而实现真正意义上的去中心化。欢迎通过以下方式提交DAO的研究,瓜分10000USDC赏金池!了解去中心化自治组织(DAO),探讨最新治理话题,关注DAO的发展趋势,欢迎加入DAOrayaki社区!

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Email: daorayaki@dorafactory.org

微信助手:DAOrayaki-Media

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DAOrayaki is a decentralized media and research organization that is autonomous by readers, researchers, and funders.

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